The Ultimate Guide to Comparing Programming Languages

10 mins

Programming languages are essential in today's modern world of technology. Programmers use t...

Programming languages are essential in today's modern world of technology. Programmers use these dynamic languages every day, revolutionising digital experience and existence, being the fundamental building blocks for businesses, no matter how small or big. 

This guide will offer an insight into the most influential programming languages of 2024, delving into the benefits and disadvantages of each technology and encouraging evaluation of the most transformative programming tool that suits the needs of your business. 

Our Top 5 Programming Languages of 2024

If you’re a programmer business or are interested in a career as a software developer, you might wonder which languages you should learn. Here are our top picks when comparing programming languages, some of which might surprise you.

1. JavaScript

JavaScript is one of the most used coding languages and is always in demand among hiring managers, making it a sensible choice for any programmer. In 2023,  around 98.7% of all websites use JavaScript as a client-side coding language. 

Among the most beginner-friendly programming languages, JavaScript finds its primary application in web development, widely utilised by web browsers. It plays a significant role in game development and mobile app creation, showcasing its ability to create dynamic web elements such as animated graphics and interactive buttons.

JavaScript is commonly known as a scripting language tool for web pages. It implements an input and output paradigm, differentiating it from other programming language tools, meaning its proficiency is widely recognised. 

Advantages of JavaScript

The most common advantages of JavaScript are as follows:

  • Client-Side Interactivity - JavaScript is well known for its interactive and dynamic user interfaces, which significantly advance web user experience.
  • Versatile - JavaScript is extremely versatile and can be used for client- and server-side development, allowing use for several digital experiences.
  • Continued Functionality - JavaScript has an extended capacity for new integrations and enhancing features.
  • Reduced Server Load - As client browsers can take on specific tasks, server load is reduced, substantially improving performance. 

Disadvantages of JavaScript

Some drawbacks of JavaScript include:

  • Security Issues - As JavaScript has client-side integration, there is potential exposure to security attacks.
  • Limited Browser Support - JavaScript can be interpreted differently across browsers, causing potential incompatibility. 
  • Slower Bitwise Function - The bitwise operations in JavaScript tend to be slower, inhibiting performance.

JavaScript Proposals for 2024

There are new exciting innovations for JavaScript in 2024, which are still in the early stages of approval. These include:

  • Pipeline Operator - This up-and-coming feature aims to make code more readable and create more proficient program functioning by allowing data to flow easily from one function to the next. 
  • Temporal API - This feature is designed to be more powerful and intuitive than the Date API, making it easier to return to a plain date object to create dates and represent the current year directly. Before being officially introduced, some minor changes may be added to this feature.
  • Error Cause - The error cause feature aims to add an optional cause element to error objects, which can help developers solve potential bugs quickly, increasing productivity. The cause is given as formatted data for machine analysis instead of human-readable messages, which avoids the risk of punctuation or wording changes breaking existing analysis. 

2. Python

Next on our list of comparing programming languages is Python. Python is a great choice for beginners as well as expert candidates and is commonly used for back-end development, app development, and data science. Python allows developers to use multiple programming designs, plus you can test as you go (without creating and testing lengthy sections of code). 

Python is an object-focused programming language offering a wide range of dynamic semantics and built-in data structures, such as dynamic typing. These built-in features make Pyhton suitable for rapid digital development and have the ability to incorporate different elements easily. 

Advantages of Python

The most beneficial elements of Python include:

  • Large Community - The Python developer community is large, with solid access to substantial support, frameworks, resources, and collaborations.
  • Simplicity - Python is relatively easy to learn and is recognised for its clean syntax, making it easy to understand and learn, and is accessible for several programming needs. 
  • Versatile - Python is highly versatile and used across several industries, such as web development, games, healthcare, and education.

Disadvantages of Python

Typical disadvantages of Python are as follows:

  • Performance - Python generally performs slower when comparing programming languages such as C# and Java due to a lack of just-in-time optimisers, leading to slower performance and higher memory usage. 
  • Memory Usage - Python has a large, extensive use of libraries, meaning memory usage is maximised. 
  • Mobile Application Development - While Python is recognised as a good language programmer for web applications, it is not considered suitable for mobile application development, which can be a limitation for businesses in the mobile environment. 

Python Proposals for 2024

Here are some of the predicted trends for Python in 2024:

  • Machine Learning Libraries (AI) - Python expects to introduce advanced natural language processing throughout 2024, which will enhance the overall performance and development of the application process.
  • Improvement in Asynchronous Programming - Advancements in asynchronous programming are currently on the horizon for 2024, aiming to speed up the simultaneous process of various work units running different threads.
  • Further Integration with Big Data Technologies  - Implementing substantial frameworks and technologies such as Apache Spark allows experts to analyse large amounts of data, enhancing data-based decision-making in 2024.

3. Java

As of 2023, Java was one of the most widely used programming languages, where around 30.55% of developers used the tool. Java has several benefits: fantastic security and an ability to handle large amounts of data, making it an excellent choice for developers in finance and e-commerce. It's also identified as a write-once, run-anywhere language, as it can run on any OS. This means it can write apps for phones and computers and things like sensors and other consumer products.

Advantages of Java

The advantageous elements of Java include: 

  • Speed and Reliability - Java is well known for its fast performance and advanced capabilities, supported by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). 
  • Object-Oriented - The paradigm used in Java is object-oriented, enabling code to be organised effectively.
  • Security - It does not matter if Java is run on a client-server. Security issues remain minimal, and Java applications remain highly protected. 

Disadvantages of Java

 Common drawbacks of Java are as follows: 

  • Memory Usage - Java typically takes up a lot of memory storage due to using the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which decreases overall efficiency. 
  • Cost - Increasing processing and memory usage leads to higher hardware costs, making Java less cost-effective as we compare programming languages.
  • Low-Level Programming - In low-level programming, pointers are expected to be absent. Java lacks support in these absences, limiting applicability for specific developments.

Java Proposals for 2024

Java trends to watch out for in 2024: 

  • Visual Studio Code - Visual Studio Code provides an outstanding interface, plugin ecosystems, and debugging tools. Program developers are increasingly shifting to using VSS as the primary IDE and will most likely continue to do so in 2024.
  • Increased use of Java 17 - This technology has recently seen new features and advancements such as faster speed, flexibility, compatibility, security updates, and better tool support, making it a popular, reliable option going into 2024. 
  • Cloud Computing - Due to new technologies in cloud computing, developers in technology jobs can now scale structures and optimise packages. Cloud computing is a pay-as-you-use platform that is highly beneficial in handling traffic spikes.

4. C#

C# is an object-oriented programming language that aims to combine the computing features of C++ with the programming ease of Visual Basic. C# is a programming language designed for the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), making it versatile across different platforms. C# can create several programs and applications, mobile apps, desktop apps, cloud-based services,  and websites.

With syntax and accessibility similar to Java, it is a multi-paradigm language that includes static typing and is widely used in game development. C# is known for its simplicity, scalability, and ease of maintenance, so it is suitable for both beginners and experienced programmers. 

Advantages of C#

Advantages of the C# programming language include:

  • Scalability and Maintenance - C# code is strict and easy to maintain, enabling developers to adjust code more quickly than other program languages.
  • Object Orientated - C# is object orientated, meaning developers can easily group data into objects, making it easier to develop applications and maintain code, lessening code issues and making them easier to fix.
  • Versatility - C# is a programming language of a flexible nature, meaning it can be applied to various digital experiences, such as web applications, games, and desktop applications. 

Disadvantages of C#

When comparing programming languages, it is important to consider the disadvantages. Drawbacks of C# include:

  • Low-Level Functionality - C# cannot perform low-level functioning tasks that need to interact directly with firmware. If low-level functioning is something your company needs, it is best to look at other language programs. 
  • NET Dependant and Windows-Based - C# depends on NET to run on different platforms. C# requires using different runtimes for different platforms where code would need to be adjusted, so it is heavily dependent on other programs. 
  • Steeper Learning Curve - C# is typically more difficult to learn when comparing programming languages such as Python. C# can be challenging to read and understand, especially for individuals with little programming experience. 

C# Proposals for 2024

Here are some new C# features that will continue into 2024: 

  • Improved Definite Assignment - This new feature means that warnings for definite assignments and null state analysis are now more accurate, reducing the risk of false positives. 
  • Global Using Directives - C# has introduced a global modifier that enables developers to inform the compiler that a directive applies to every source file within a compilation and project.
  • Enhanced #line Pragma - New #line pragma enhancements mean that outputs in domain-specific languages will be smoother, meaning debugging performance will be improved. 


Last but not least on our list of comparing programming languages is HTML. The HTML programming language is a text-based framework that fundamentally implements web page development, focusing on defining the layout of webpage content. HTML can organise structural components of files and uses hypertext to outline interconnections between web pages to perform functions such as interlinking. 

Advantages of HTML

Typical benefits of the HTML programming language include:

  • Simplicity - HTML is a relatively easy tool to learn, and code can be easily adjusted, which is ideal for beginners in language programming. 
  • Cost Effective - HTML does not require additional software, meaning it is highly cost-efficient as software costs are limited. 
  • Integration - HTML can easily integrate with other programming languages, such as JavaScript, which enhances performance and maintains a positive user experience across different browsers. 

Disadvantages of HTML

The disadvantages of the HTML tool include:

  • Security - There are limited security features offered by HTML, increasing the risk of cyber security attacks.
  • Limited Design Capabilities - HTML typically does not have advanced design capabilities and offers basic structure and presentation for web pages. However, new HTML5 features are beginning to introduce more design qualities.
  • Complex Layouts - To create complex HTML layouts, additional frameworks and programming tools may need to be incorporated into the development process, making the process more challenging to execute quickly. 

HTML5  Proposals for 2024

HTML5, the latest version of HTML, has implemented new features to enhance performance and create more dynamic web pages. New features going into 2024 include:

  • Video and Audio - HTML5 has introduced new audio and video tags, allowing developers to quickly incorporate new video and audio features into a website without assembling a video player. 
  • Header and Footer - New header and footer tags have also been introduced, without the need to outline the two different elements, and are automatically placed at the start or end of a webpage. 
  • Vector Graphics - New features in vector graphics encourage animation and engagement, as they can be used to draw graphics of various designs through the use of scripting. Loading these files on the web has become much quicker and more efficient due to smaller file sizes. 

Comparing Programming Languages - The Verdict 

The key takeaway of our guide to comparing programming languages is acknowledging the specific requirements of your project or business and choosing a programming language that aligns with those needs. As we compare programming languages of 2024, it is evident that each language brings advantages and disadvantages, catering to diverse needs and preferences.

Proposed features and trends for 2024  indicate innovations aimed at improving performance, security, and overall development experience. Whether you are a seasoned developer or a newcomer to the programming world, staying abreast of these trends will be crucial for making informed choices and staying competitive in the dynamic field of software development.

Looking for a Specialised Technology Recruitment Agency? 

At RocSearch, we have substantial leaders in IT and technology jobs, and we are here to help you reach your full potential as a programmer. Our specialist recruiters are passionate about connecting professionals to organisations that meet their expertise and career aspirations.

Contact us today to discuss your requirements.